Minyak Atsiri Indonesia

Abstrak Penelitian

KARAKTERISASI MORFOLOGI DAN MUTU ADAS (Foeniculum vulgare MILL.)

Nurliani Bermawie, Nur Ajijah dan Otih Rostiana; Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat

(Buletin Tanaman Rempah dan Obat Vol. XIII, No. 2, 2002)

ABSTRAK

Karakterisasi tanaman adas (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) telah dilakukan di Manoko, Jawa Barat mulai bulan April 1995 sampai Maret 1996. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakter morfologi dan mutu 2 tipe adas. Bahan tanaman yang digunakan adalah satu tipe adas asal Cepogo (Jawa Tengah ) dan satu tipe asal Manoko (Jawa Barat). Parameter yang diamati meliputi karakter morfologi, agronomi serta mutu buah dan sifat fisika dan kimia minyaknya. Tidak ditemukan perbedaan dalam karakter morfologi batang, daun, bunga dan buah namun ditemukan perbedaan dalam beberapa karakter agronomi yang diamati. Tipe Cepogo memiliki rata-rata tinggi tanaman, jumlah batang, jumlah tandan bunga per batang dan produksi buah kering per rumpun yang lebih banyak dibandingkan tipe manoko yaitu berturut-turut 151.67 cm, 51.25, 29.54 cm dan 123.7 gram (data panen tahun ke-2). Tipe Manoko memiliki jumlah ruas, jumlah individu bunga per tandan dan diameter tandan bunga yang lebih besar dibanding tipe Cepogo yaitu berturut-turut 18.30, 36.59 dan 12.37 cm. Hasil analisa sifat fisika dan kimia minyak juga menunjukkan adanya perbedaan. Kadar minyak atsiri tipe Cepogo dan Manoko berturut-turut adalah 1.85 % dan 2.57%, kadar minyak lemak 13.15% dan 11.64%, sari dalam etol 5.72% dan 7.58% serta kadar anetol 53.40% dan 55.08%. Untuk mendukung kegiatan pemuliaan lebih lanjut sangat diperlukan peningkatan variabilitas genetik diantaranya melalui introduksi, induksi keragaman somaklonal maupun persilangan.

Kata kunci : F. vulgare Mill., kadar minyak, sari dalam ethanol, kadar anetol, keragaman genetik.

Characterization of morphologycal characters and quality of fennel germplasm (F. vulgare Mill.)

ABSTRACT

Characterization of fennel (F. vulgare Mill.) had been conducted at Manoko, west Java from April 1995 to March 1996. Materials used were two types of fennel from Cepogo (Central Java) and Manoko (West Java). Observation were done on morphological and agronomical characters and the quality of fruit and its oil. There were no morphological differences on stem, leaf, flower and seed between Cepogo and Manoko type, differences were observed on height, number of shoot, number of flower cluster and dry fruit weight per plant. Cepogo type has the average plant height, number of stem, number of flower cluster per plant and dry weight of fruit per bunch higher than that of Manoko with 151.67 cm, 51.25 and 123.7 g (data of the second harvest) respectively. Manoko type, on the other hand, has number of internode, number of individual flower per cluster and diameter and diameter of flower cluster much more than the Cepogo with 18.30, 36.59 and 12.37 cm respectively. The chemical properties of the fruit and the physical and chemical properties of the oil of the two types also showed differences. The essential oil contents, oil and fat, essence in ethol and anetol content of the oil of the Cepogo and Manoko types were 1.81 % and 2.57 %, 13.15% and 11.64 %, 5.72% and 7.58 % and 53.40% and 55.08%, respectively. To support the breeding activities of this crop, it is necessary to broaden of genetic variability of the existing germplasm through introductions, induction of somaclonal variation or hybridization.

Key words : F. vulgare Mill., oil content, essence in ethanol, anetol content, genetic variability

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