Minyak Atsiri Indonesia

Zingiberaceae

Bul. Littro. Vol. XVII No. 2, 2006, 91 – 98
91
KARAKTERISTIK BEBERAPA MINYAK ATSIRI FAMILI
ZINGIBERACEAE DALAM PERDAGANGAN
Ma’mun
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Obat dan Aromatik
ABSTRAK
Minyak atsiri dari famili zingiberaceae
seperti minyak kapolaga, minyak jahe
dan minyak temulawak termasuk minyak atsiri
yang banyak digunakan dan diperdagangkan,
terutama dipasar luar negeri. Minyak kapolaga
dihasilkan dari tanaman kapolaga jenis
sabrang (Elettaria cardamomum) dan banyak
diproduksi oleh India dan Sri Langka. Minyak
jahe (Ginger officinale) banyak dihasilkan
dari Cina dan India. Telah dilakukan identifikasi
karakteristik minyak atsiri kapolaga jenis
sabrang dan jenis lokal (Amomum cardamomum),
minyak jahe dan minyak temulawak
(Curcuma xanthorriza) yang diperoleh bahan
dari daerah Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Lampung
dan dari beberapa eksportir di Laboratorium
Teknologi Pasca Panen, Balai Penelitian
Tanaman Rempah dan Obat. Karakteristik
minyak-minyak tersebut dibandingkan
dengan spesifikasi minyak atsiri menurut
Standar Internasional. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan
bahwa karakteristik minyak kapolaga
jenis lokal sangat berbeda dari minyak kapolaga
jenis sabrang. Akan tetapi karakteristik
minyak kapolaga sabrang tersebut menyerupai
karakteristik yang ditentukan Standar Internasional.
Minyak jahe karakteristiknya tidak
sesuai dengan Standar Internasional, terutama
nilai putaran optiknya, sementara minyak temulawak
belum ada standar mutunya.
Kata kunci : karakteristik minyak atsiri, Elettaria
cardamomum, Amomum cardamomum,
Ginger officinale, Curcuma
xanthorhiza
ABSTRACT
Characteristics of Saveral Essential
Oils of Zingiberaceae Family Plant
in Trade
The essential oils of zingiberaceae
such as cardamom oil, ginger oil and curcuma
oil used in medicin, parfum, food and
beverage industries and aromatheraphy.
Cardamom oil is distilled of E. Cardamomum,
produced in India and Sri Langka. Ginger oil (G. officinale) comes from Cina and India. Meanwhile curcuma oil (C. Xanthorrhiza) is still used in domestic and limited scale. The identification of characteristic of cardamom oil, ginger oil and curcuma oil originated from West Java, Central Java, Lampung and some eksporters was conducted in the Post harvest technology laboratory, Research Institute for Spice and Medicinal Crops. The essential oils distilled using water and steam distillation methode. Oils obtained were analyzed to get the oil characteristics which discribed in specific gravity, refractive index, optical rotation, solubility in ethanol, acid number and ester number. The characteristics of those essential oils was compared to the Inetrnational Standard. The result showed that the oil characteristics of A. cardamomum and E. Cardamomumis very different. But the oil characteristics of E. Cardamomum from West Java and Indonesian exporter is the same to the international standard specification. Characteristics of ginger oil from Central Java, Lampung and Indonesian exporter is not agree with international standard especially in optical rotation specification.

Key words : Essential oils characteristic, Elettaria cardamomum, Amomum cardamomum, Ginger officinale, Curcuma xanthorhiza

PENDAHULUAN
Indonesia termasuk salah satu negara penghasil utama minyak atsiri di dunia. Terdapat kurang lebih 45 jenis tanaman penghasil minyak atsiri tumbuh di Indonesia, namun baru kira-kira 15 jenis yang sudah menjadi komoditi

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